GNU Emacs Reference Card


http://www.physics.ucsb.edu/~pcs/apps/editors/emacs-quick-1.8.html

(for version 18)

STARTING EMACS
To enter Emacs, type emacs

LEAVING EMACS
suspend Emacs (the usual way of leaving it)          C-z
exit Emacs permanently                               C-x    C-c

FILES
read a file into Emacs                               C-x    C-f
save a file back to disk                             C-x    C-s
insert content of another file into this buffer      C-x    i
replace this file with the file you really want      C-x    C-v
write buffer to a specified file                     C-x    C-w
run Dired, the directory editor                      C-x    d

GETTING HELP
The Help system is simple. Type C-h and follow the directions. If
you are a first-time user, type C-h t for a tutorial.

get rid of Help Window                               C-x    1
scroll Help Windows                                  ESC    C-v
apropos: show commands matching a string             C-h    a
show the function a key runs                         C-h    c
describe a function                                  C-h    f
get mode-specific information                        C-h    m

ERROR RECOVERY
about partially typed or executing command           C-g
recover a file lost by a system crash          M-x recover-file
undo an unwanted change                              C-x  u or C-_
restore a buffer to its original contents      M-x revert-buffer
redraw garbaged screen                               C-l    

INCREMENTAL SEARCH
search forward                                       C-s
search backward                                      C-r
regular expression search                            C-M-s

Use C-s or C-r again to repeat the search in either direction

exit incremental search                              ESC
undo effect of last character                        DEL
abort current search                                 C-g

If Emacs is still searching, C-g will cancel the part of the search
not done, otherwise it aborts the entire search.


MOTION
Cursor Motion:
   entity to move over             backward       forward
   -------------------------------------------------------
   character                       C-b            C-f
   word                            M-b            M-f
   line                            C-p            C-n
   go to line beginning (or end)   C-a            C-e
   sentence                        M-a            M-e
   paragraph                       M-[            M-]
   page                            C-x [          C-x ]
   sexp                            C-M-b          C-M-f
   function                        C-M-a          C-M-e
   go to buffer beginning (or end) M-<            M->

Screen Motion:
   scroll to next screen           C-v
   scroll to previous screen       M-v
   scroll left                     C-x <
   scroll right                    C-x >

KILLING AND DELETING
   entity to kill                  backward       forward
   --------------------------------------------------------
   character (delete, not kill)    DEL            C-d
   word                            M-DEL          M-d
   line (to end of)                M-O C-k        C-k
   sentence                        C-x DEL        M-k
   sexp                            M-- C-M-k      C-M-k
   
   kill region                            C-w
   kill to next occurrence of character   M-z char
   yank back last thing killed            C-y
   replace last yank with previous kill   M-y

MARKING
set mark here                             C-@ ir C-SPC
exchange point and mark                   C-x C-x
set mark arg words away                   M-@
mark paragraph                            M-h
mark page                                 C-x C-p
mark sexp                                 C-M-@
mark function                             C-M-h
mark entire buffer                        C-x h

QUERY REPLACE
interactively replace a text string       M-%
using regular expressions                 M-x query-replace-regexp

Valid responses in query-replace mode are
replace this one, go on to next           SPC
replace this one, don't move              ,
skip to next without replacing            DEL
replace all remaining matches             !
back up to the previous match             ^
exit query-replace                        ESC
enter recursive edit (C-M-c to exit)      C-r

MULTIPLE WINDOWS
delete all other windows                  C-x 1
delete this window                        C-x 0
split window into 2 vertically            C-x 2
split window into 2 horizontally          C-x 5

scroll other window                       C-M-v
switch cursor to another window           C-x o

shrink window shorter                     M-x shrink-window
grow window taller                        C-x ^
shrink window narrower                    C-x {
grow window wider                         C-x }

select a buffer in other window           C-x 4 b
find file in other window                 C-x 4 f
compose mail in other window              C-x 4 m
run Dired in other window                 C-x 4 d
find tag in other window                  C-x 4 .

FORMATTING
indent current line (mode-dependant)      TAB
indent region (mode-dependant)            C-M-\
indent sexp (mode-dependant)              C-M-q
indent region rigidly arg columns         C-x TAB

insert newline after point                C-o
move rest of line vertically down         C-M-o
delete blank lines around point           C-x C-o
delete all whitespace around point        M-\
put exactly one space at point            M-SPC

fill paragraph                            M-q
fill region                               M-g
set fill column                           C-x f
set prefix each line starts with          C-x .

CASE CHANGE
uppercase word                            M-u
lowercase word                            M-l
capitalize word                           M-c

uppercase region                          C-x C-u
lowercase region                          C-x C-l
capitalize region                         M-x capitalize-region

THE MINIBUFFER
The following keys are defined in the Minibuffer.

complete as much as possible              TAB
complete up to one word                   SPC
complete and execute                      RET
show possible completions                 ?
abort command                             C-g

Type C-x ESC to edit and repeat the last command that used the
minibuffer. The following keys are then defined.

previous minibuffer command               M-p
next minibuffer command                   M-n

BUFFERS
select another buffer                     C-x b
list all buffers                          C-x C-b
kill a buffer                             C-x k

TRANSPOSING
transpose characters                      C-t
transpose words                           M-t
transpose lines                           C-x C-t
transpose sexps                           C-M-t

SPELLING CHECK
check spelling of current word            M-$
check spelling of all words in region     M-x spell-region
check spelling of entire buffer           M-x spell-buffer

TAGS
find tag                                  M-.
find next occurrence of tag               C-u M-.
specify a new tags file                   M-x visit-tags-table

regexp search on all files in tags table  M-x tags-search
query replace on all the files            M-x tags-query-replace
continue last tags search or query-replace   M-,

SHELLS
execute a shell command                   M-!
run a shell command on the region         M-|
filter region through a shell command     C-u M-|
start a shell in window *shell*           M-x shell

RMAIL
scroll forward                            SPC
scroll reverse                            DEL
beginning of message                      . (dot)
next non-deleted message                  n
previous non-deleted message              p
next message                              M-n
previous message                          M-p
delete message                            d
delete message and back-up                C-d
undelete message                          u
reply to message                          r
forward message to someone                f
send mail                                 m
get newly arrived mail                    g
quit Rmail                                q
output message to another Rmail file      o
output message in Unix-mail style         C-o
show summary of headers                   h

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
The following have special meaning inside a regular expression.

any single character                      . (dot)
zero or more repeats                      *
one or more repeats                       +
zero or one repeat                        ?
any character in set                      [ ... ]
any character not in set                  [^ ...]
beginning of line                         ^
end of line                               $
quote a special character c               \c
alternative ("or")                        \|
grouping                                  \( ... \)
nth group                                 \n
beginning of buffer                       \`
end of buffer                             \'
word break                                \b
not beginning or end of word              \B
beginning of word                         \<
end of word                               \>
any word-syntax character                 \w
any non-word-syntax character             \W
character with syntax c                   \sc
character with syntax not c               \Sc

REGISTERS
copy region to register                   C-x x
insert register contents                  C-x g
save point in register                    C-x /
move point to saved location              C-x j

INFO
enter the Info documentation reader       C-h i

Moving within a mode:
   scroll forward                         SPC
   scroll reverse                         DEL
   beginning of node                      . (dot)

Moving between nodes:
   next node                              n
   previous node                          p
   move up                                u
   select menu item by name               m
   select nth menu item by number (1-5)   n
   follow cress reference (return with l) f
   return to last node you saw            l
   return to directory node               d
   go to any node by name                 g

Other:
   run Info tutorial                      h
   list Info commands                     ?
   quit Info                              q
   search nodes for regexp                s

KEYBOARD MACROS
start defining a keyboard macro           C-x (
end keyboard macro definition             C-x )
execute last-defined keyboard macro       C-x e
append to last keyboard macro             C-u C-x (
name last keyboard macro                  M-x name-last-kbd-macro
insert lisp definition in buffer          M-x insert-kbd-macro

COMMANDS DEALING WITH EMACS LISP
eval sexp before point                    C-x C-e
eval current defun                        C-M-x
eval region                               M-x eval-region
eval entire buffer                        M-x eval-current-buffer
read and eval minibuffer                  M-ESC
re-execute last minibuffer command        C-x ESC
read and eval Emacs Lisp file             M-x load-file
load from standard system directory       M-x load-library

SIMPLE CUSTOMIZATION
Here are some examples of binding global keys in Emacs Lisp. Note
that you cannot say "\M-#"; you must say "\e#".

(global-set-key "C-cg" 'goto-line)
(global-set-key "\e\C-r" 'isearch-backward-regexp)
(global-set-key "\e#" 'query-replace-regexp)

An example of setting a variable in Emacs Lisp:

(setq backup-by-copying-when-linked t)

WRITING COMMANDS
(defun  ()
   ""
   (interactive "")
   )

An example:

(defun this-line-to-top-of-screen (line)
   "Reposition line point is on to the top
of the screen. With ARG, put point online ARG. 
Negative counts from bottom."
   (interactive "P")
   (recenter (if (null line)
          0
          (prefix-numeric-value line))))

The argument to "interactive" is a string specifying how to get the
arguments when the function is called interactively. Type "C-h
interactive" for more information.



Copyright 1987 Free Software Products Inc
designed by Stephen Gildea, March 1987, v 1.9
for GNU Emacs version 1.8 on Unix Systems.

4 thoughts on “GNU Emacs Reference Card

  1. Feng

    今天总算是把emacs的tutorial看完了,发现那些命令输起来还真不方面,感觉没有vi顺手。。

    Reply
  2. Sophie

    恩,emacs是比较麻烦
    这两天看了点vi的教程,明天开始试用,呵呵,用上手了以后就可以直接在linux server上编程了,也不用背着笔记本,而且还得改程序再上传那么麻烦了 bless~

    Reply

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